On 1 January 1940, Britain called up two million 19- to 27-year-olds for military service. The first half of this lecture presented here contains an introductory section on how we decide what is good and evil, before Lewis goes on to discuss the pacifist question in particular (11:24). Part 2 of the Lecture is here which deals with the fourth element, Authority: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jreq3… You can find the book here: http://www.amazon.com/Compelling-Reas… This is the first half of an address to the Oxford Pacifist Society. The exact date of this address has always been unknown except that it was given in 1940, but I notice the lecture does refer to something very topical at the time – the heroic and sacrificial courage of the captain and crew of the ‘Jervis Bay’ (misread in Lewis’ rough handwriting as ‘Terris Bay’). The sinking was only made public in the U.K. on the 12th November 1940 (Daily Mirror https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B9Mm…) so that narrows down the delivery date considerably to late 1940. At this time Britain was in the middle of the Blitz and was facing the Nazi threat alone, with the Pacifist President Franklin Roosevelt ‘leading from behind’ and being painfully slow to help arm the last democracy in Europe. As bad as that was, Britain did worse! Britain was facing the same severe stress she had given to Czechoslovakia in 1938 with a public and leader asleep to the gathering storm. This situation would all change within a single year of this lecture, with the Japanese strike on Pearl Harbor and Nazi Germany declaring war on the United States on the 11th December 1941. I’ve added some helps to the captions during Winston Churchill’s address, but the captions need to clicked on by pressing the subtitle button on bottom right of the video.